Hostile Vehicle Mitigation
Vehicle-borne threats range from vandalism to sophisticated or aggressive attack by determined criminals or terrorists. The mobility and payload capacity of a vehicle offers a convenient delivery mechanism for a large explosive device, although the vehicle itself may be used as a weapon. This section contains guidance that will help practitioners determine the vehicle-borne threat, assess site strengths and vulnerabilities, and identify suitable options for Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM) measures.
Determining the type of vehicle-borne threat being faced
When specifying the nature of the vehicle-borne threat it is important to understand:
- Modus Operandi (MO) - this includes parked, penetrative, encroachment, deception and duress or a combination of attack methods including surreptitious and forcible attack on the barrier with hand tools or explosives
- Threat vehicle(s) - unmodified road vehicles with specific characteristics - mass, speed and structure, as well as vehicle specific capabilities
- Blast effect - especially if considering VBIED attack
- Stand-off distance from the asset/s - must be considered in conjunction with the site operational needs and security plan
How do I assess the strengths and vulnerabilities of my site to vehicle-borne threats?
Once the nature of threat is understood, practitioners should take a methodical and considered approach to determine project objectives and highlight security vulnerabilities:
- Develop detailed security requirements for HVM - Operational Requirements (OR)
- User Requirement Document (URD) if not covered in the detailed requirements - addressing additional business needs e.g. stakeholder liaison, planning and design
- Practical site assessment - a layered approach incorporating the local area, blast stand-off, traffic management and vehicle access control
- Technical assessment - e.g. Vehicle Dynamics Assessment (VDA) at specific locations based on the relevant threat vehicle(s)
- Liaison with technical or security experts - e.g. CPNI or CTSAs, or RSES professionals with relevant experience
How can I reduce the vulnerability of my site and mitigate vehicle-borne threats?
Based on the project objectives and site assessment, a range of options can be incorporated into the design of a robust HVM strategy:
- Principles of hostile vehicle mitigation - determine the aims of the HVM strategy and how it will integrate with other site security measures
- Traffic calming - can be used to limit vehicle approach speeds to a manageable level
- Vehicle Security Barriers (VSB) - provide proven vehicle impact protection and maintain blast stand-off.
- Traffic management - when and how legitimate traffic will access the site
- Vehicle access control - consider deployment of active VSB solutions, access procedures, long term operational management and emergency access
What vehicle impact test standards should I be using?
CPNI recommend that a barrier deployed for the purposes of countering terrorism to protect assets against vehicle-borne threats should be a ‘Rated Vehicle Security Barrier’ that has undergone formal vehicle impact testing.
The testing should:
- be conducted to a recognised vehicle impact test standard
- be performed at an independent test house
- achieve a performance rating in accordance with the chosen standard
For further information please see our new advice note - Due diligence in the selection and procurement of vehicle security barriers.
Mitigating the risk to high streets
The risk to pedestrians from Vehicle As a Weapon (VAW) attack remains a real possibility during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing measures will require authorities and businesses to guide customers in and around commercial premises and publicly accessible locations e.g. high streets. In order to minimise the risks to people, organisations and authorities can take practical steps to reduce the risk. CPNI has published guidance on protective security considerations for high street hospitality and guidance on protecting queues to counter this attack methodology.
Public realm integration
Integration of HVM measures within the public realm is increasingly common and whilst requiring the application of informed design choices meeting the needs of numerous stakeholders, can provide proportionate security measures without impinging on the needs of local businesses or functionality of the public space.
In addition to the publication of a public realm design guide for hostile vehicle mitigation CPNI has collaborated with the Department for Transport to produce guidance regarding the incorporation of HVM measures in the public space and specific advice on the use of bollards and their effect on pedestrian movement.
The related documents and pages provide a range of advice on standards and selection of appropriate measures. External links are listed below:
ISO – IWA 14-1:2013 Vehicle security barriers – Part 1: Performance requirement, vehicle impact test method and performance rating
ISO – IWA 14-2:2013 Vehicle security barriers – Part 2: Application
BSI – PAS 68:2013 Impact test specifications for vehicle security barrier systems
BSI – PAS 69:2013 Guidance for the selection, installation and use of vehicle security barrier systems
CEN - CWA 16221:2010 Vehicle security barriers. Performance requirements, test methods and guidance on application
DFT-TAL 1/16: Influence of bollards on pedestrian evacuation
DfT-TAL 2/13: Bollards and pedestrian movement
DfT TAL 1/11 Vehicle security barriers within the streetscape
NaCTSO – Crowded places guidance
- Testing soil conditions for vehicle security barriers tests - Summary
- Testing soil conditions for vehicle security barriers tests - Full report
- Factors Influencing Concrete Curing During Vehicle Security Barrier Installation
- Active Vehicle Security Barriers - Control Panel Design
- Retractable vehicle security barriers - Maintaining road surface friction
- Integrated Security
- HVM Operational Requirements Level 2 (pdf)
- HVM Operational Requirements Level 2 (word)
- Vehicle security barrier scoping document (pdf)
- Vehicle security barrier scoping document (word)
- Due diligence in the selection and procurement of vehicle security barriers
- Procuring the Services of a Specialist Security Consultant