OFFICIAL

CSE Doors Chapter: Marauding Terrorist Attacks

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Essential Reading

Introduction

Research conducted by CPNI has demonstrated steel doorsets have the potential to offer a significant delay to forced entry by marauding attackers using bladed weapons, firearms or placing explosive devices in contact with the doorset. 

Products

Timber and Steel doorsets have the capacity to delay progress by marauding attackers in accordance with CPNI’s Marauding Terrorist Attack Standard (MTAS). Successful products are awarded a sophistication level of either BASIC, LOW, MODERATE, HIGH and EXPERT. Please refer to https://www.cpni.gov.uk/resources/introduction-marauding-terrorist-attack-standard-mtas

MTAS focusses on the delay a barrier can afford against the attacks stated above.  It does not consider the ease with which barriers can be secured and unlocked to aid escape. It is therefore extremely important to understand how easily a barrier can be secured and unlocked to aid escape.

CPNI have assessed several doorsets that meet CPNI’s manual forced entry standard (MFES). These are listed in the Catalogue of Security Equipment. (Click button to enter CSE pages for MFES doorsets).  These products have also been awarded sophistication levels in accordance with MTAS.   

CPNI also conducted trials on several timber specimens representative of generic construction offering a range of functionalities.   CPNI also conducted trials on several lighter duty steel doorsets.

CPNI identified the following design features that may delay attackers’ progress sufficiently to allow people to alleviate themselves from danger.
 

Steel Doorsets

  • Steel doorsets incorporating leaves formed using 1.5 mm thick steel skins with corrugated board or mineral wool cores have the potential to deliver at least the following delay to marauding attack when secured using a single point mortice sash lock:
    3 minutes to BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) attacks
    0.5 minutes to LOW sophistication ballistic forced entry (BFES) attacks
    0.5 minutes to MODERATE sophistication energetic forced entry (EFES) attacks.
  • Steel doorsets incorporating leaves formed using 1.5 mm thick steel skins  with corrugated board or mineral wool cores have the potential to deliver at least the following delay to marauding attack when secured using a multi-point surface mounted lock:
    3 minutes to BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) attacks
    3 minutes to LOW sophistication ballistic forced entry (BFES) attacks.
    2 minutes to MODERATE sophistication ballistic forced entry (BFES) attacks using either a handgun or shotgun.
    -1 minute to MODERATE sophistication ballistic forced entry (BFES) attacks using a rifle or HIGH sophistication ballistic forced entry (BFES) attacks.
    0.5 minutes to MODERATE sophistication energetic forced entry (EFES) attacks.

Reinforcing leaves and jambs can significantly enhance their resistance to forced entry attacks – particularly their resistance to ballistic forced entry (hardened steels) and energetic forced entry (hardened steel and laminated timber cores).

CPNI has not been able to evaluate every variant of steel doorset currently on the market to award each product a MTAS sophistication level.  

 

Timber Doorsets

  • Outward opening timber doorsets generally afford greater resistance to forced entry than inward opening timber doorsets.
  • Doorsets formed using solid hardwood leaves provide greater resistance than those formed with leaves containing either particleboard or hollow cores.
  • Doorsets formed using solid rebated jambs provide greater resistance than those formed using softwood frames or jambs incorporating planted stops.
  • Outward opening timber doorsets formed using 44 m thick solid hardwood leaves and solid rebated hardwood jambs have the potential to deliver at least 1 minute resistance to a BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) attack when secured using a two-point surface mounted panic exit systems complying with the EN 1125 Building hardware. Panic exit devices operated by a horizontal bar, for use on escape routes. Requirements and test methods.
  • Outward opening timber doorsets formed using 44 mm thick solid hardwood leaves and solid rebated hardwood jambs have the potential to deliver at least 5 minutes resistance to a BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) attack when secured using one of the following types of single-point morticed access control locking devices:
    - Motorised deadlock.
    -Solenoid deadlock.
    - Mortice sash lock with electronic strike plate.
  • Fitting a pair of mortice bolts 1/3 and 2/3 along the leading edge of a solid 44 mm thick hardwood door leaf has the potential to enable the doorset to deliver at least the following delay against BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) attacks:
    - Outward opening doorset (2 minutes).
    - Inward opening doorset (5 minutes).
  • Timber doorsets formed using 54 mm thick solid hardwood leaves and solid rebated hardwood jambs have the potential to deliver at least the following resistance to BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) attacks when secured using a mortice sash lock in combination with an electronic strike plate:
    -Outward opening (5 minute).
    -Inward opening (1 minute).
  • Outward opening timber doorsets formed using 54 mm thick solid hardwood leaves and solid rebated hardwood jambs have the potential to deliver at least the following resistance to attack when secured using one of the following types of single point surface mounted access control locking devices:
    - 24V shear lock (1 minute to a BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) level attack).
    - 24V electromagnetic lock (3 minutes to a BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) level attack).
    - Solenoid lock (5 minutes to a BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) level attack and at least 30 seconds to a LOW sophistication ballistic forced entry (BFES) attack).
  • Inward opening timber doorsets formed using 54 mm solid hardwood leaves and solid rebated hardwood jambs have the potential to deliver at least the following resistance to attack when secured using a single point surface mounted solenoid lock:
    5 minutes to a BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) level attack 
    30 seconds to a LOW sophistication ballistic forced entry (BFES) attack.
  • Fitting a pair of flush bolts within the protected side of a 54 mm thick solid hardwood door leaf has the potential to enable:
    - An outward opening doorset to achieve at least a 5 minute delay against a BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) attack.|
    - An inward opening doorset to achieve at least a 10 minute delay against a BASIC sophistication (bladed weapon) attack and a 30 second delay against a LOW sophistication ballistic forced entry (BFES) attack. 

Further information can be found in the following CPNI guidance:

MTA Supplementary Guidance - Physical Barriers that delay and discourage attackers.